Family: Teiidae Order: Squamata Class: Reptilia
DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, AND MSEASONALITY
The western whiptail is widely distributed but uncommon over much of its range in
California, except in desert regions where it is abundant in suitable habitats. The species
is found throughout the state except in the humid northwest, along the humid outer Coast
Ranges, or mountainous regions above 2290 m (7500 ft). Also absent from much of the
northern part of the Central Valley (Montanucci 1968). The western whiptail occurs
in a variety of habitats including valley-foothill hardwood, valley-foothill hardwood-conifer,
valley-foothill riparian, mixed conifer,
chamise-redshank chaparral, mixed
and annual grassland.
SPECIFIC HABITAT REQUIREMENTS
Whiptails forage actively on the ground near the base of vegetation taking
a wide variety of
including grasshoppers, beetles, ants,
termites, insect larvae, and spiders (Stebbins 1954). Individuals often probe cracks and
crevices and dig in loose soil as they forage. Whiptails occasionally appear to stalk larger
prey items such as grasshoppers. Individuals have been observed breaking up termite
galleries in dead vegetation. Vitt and Ohmart (1977) reported that the diet of whiptails
may change seasonally to reflect the abundance of seasonally available prey items.
Whiptails are always most common in and around dense vegetation. They spend
little time in open areas but will cross barren spaces in order to reach the cover of dense
shrubs in sparsely vegetated areas. Initially they rely on speed or the cover provided by
dense vegetation to avoid predators, but if pursued they will eventually seek refuge in
Little is known about habitat requirements for courtship, mating, and egglaying.
Loose soil for foraging and nest construction may be an important habitat element.
No information on water requirements. This species is widely distributed in arid
regions and does not require permanent water.
Whiptails are always most common in and around dense vegetation. They are
often found associated with sand areas along gravelly arroyos or
SPECIES LIFE HISTORY
Activity Patterns: Whiptails are primarily
In the deserts most activity occurs in
the morning (Vitt and Ohmart 1977) except on cloudy days when individuals may be active
all day. In northern California where summers are milder, the peak of activity occurs about
midday (Johnson 1969). Adult whiptails usually become inactive by early fall, but juveniles
extend the period of activity until late fall or even early winter depending on local conditions.
Pronounced seasonal movement or migration has not
been reported for this species in California. Most or all essential habitat requirments are
apparently found within the normal area of activity. When long-distance movements do
occur they are unpredictable and related to food availability.
Average home ranges for whiptails (excluding wandering individuals)
have been calculated by Milstead (1957) to be about 0.1 ha (0.26 ac). Jorgensen and Tanner
(1963) have reported home range sizes of 0.07 ha (0.18 ac) for males and 0.04 ha (0.10 ac) for
females. Parker (1972) reported densities of whiptail lizards in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona
to vary from 13-36/ha (5-15/ac). In Nevada Tanner et al. (1969) observed densities ranging
from 7-19/ha (3-8 ac).
Observed overlaps in the home ranges of adult whiptails, coupled with an
apparent lack of aggressive behavior between individuals, have suggested to some
workers (Milstead 1957, Parker 1972) that there is a lack of male territoriality in this species.
The reproductive season for the western whiptail varies geographically
and from year to year depending on local conditions. Reproductive behavior generally occurs
from May to August. Parker (1972) reported the average clutch size to be 2.9 eggs with a range
of 1-5. It is possible that females from the southern California desert regions may lay more
than one clutch of eggs per year (Pianka 1970).
Vitt and Ohmart (1977) suggest that the active, constantly moving behavioral
pattern of whiptail lizards makes them subject to a high frequency of predation attempts
Such predators include
birds. Ohmart (1973) found that whiptails make up a large percentage of the food items
Although the food habits of western whiptails at times
overlaps considerably with those of the
(Vitt and Ohmart 1977),
competition for food may be minimal since most of the dietary overlap is attributable
to the common utilization of seasonally abundant prey. Different foraging microhabitat
preferences by the two species further reduce competition where they coexist.
Johnson, C. R. 1969. Observations on northern california populations of cnemidophorus
tigris (Sauria: Teiidae). Herpetologica 25:316-318.
Jorgensen, C. D., and W. W. Tanner. 1963. The application of the density probability function
to determine the home ranges of uta stansburiana stansburiana and cnemidoporus trigris
tigris. Herpetologica 19:105-115.
Milstead, W. W. 1957. Observations on the natural history of four species of the whiptail lizard,
cnemidophorus (Sauria: Teiidae) in Trans-Pecos Texas. Southwest Nat. 2:105-121.
Montanucci, R. R. 1968. Notes on the distribution and ecology of some lizards in San Joaquin
Valley, California. Herpetologica 24:316-320.
Ohmart, R. D. 1973. Observations on the breeding adaptations of the roadrunner. Condor 75:
Parker, W. S. 1972. Ecological study of the western whiptail lizard, cnemidophorus tigris
gracilis in Arizona. Herpetologica 28:360-369.
Pianka, E. R. 1970. Comparative autecology of the lizard cnemidophorus tigris in different
parts of its geographic range. Ecology 51:703-720.
Stebbins, R. C. 1954. Amphibians and reptiles of western North America. McGraw-Hill, New
Tanner, W. W., et al. 1969.
Vitt, L. J., and R. D. Ohmart. 1977. Ecology and reproduction of lower colorado river lizards:
ii. Cnemidophorus tigris (Teiidae), with comparisons. Herpetologica 33:223-234.
California Department of Fish and Game. California Interagency
Wildlife Task Group. 2005. California Wildlife Habitat Relationships version 8.1 personal computer program.
Cnemidophorus tigris multiscutatus - USGS Western Ecological Research Station, San Diego Ca.
Size: 2.4-4.6 in (6.0-11.7 cm)
Distinguishing characters: A species with eight light-colored stripes that are often very indistinct, with
crossbars in adults suggesting checkered appearance; dark markings on dorsum with yellow, tan or brown
background; throat pale with black spots; long tail; enlarged, square scales on venter; dorsal scales fine
and granular; tongue is forked and flicked continually.
Juveniles: Similar to adults, with distal portion of tail bright blue-green; in Orange and Riverside Counties
they are striped.
Dimorphism: Enlarged femoral pores in males.
Similar species: Cnemidophorus hyperythrus: Striping more distinct; does not appear checkered or spotted; legs
and tail cobalt blue in juveniles.
Additional notes: A distinctive species with a jerking gait, rarely sits still. Adults are surprisingly strong
when handled and have very sharp claws.