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Wildlife > Reptiles > Snakes

Reptiles are closely associated with the desert in many peoples minds. This seems to be based partly on reality and partly on perception. Reptiles do form a very conspicuous part of the vertebrate fauna of warm deserts such as are found in Joshua Tree National Park. There may not be any larger number of reptiles in the desert than in neighboring less arid areas, but the lack of dense vegetation on the desert certainly makes them easier to see. Many of the lizards are especially conspicuous as they bask atop boulders or other elevated sites.

Reptiles are better adapted to life in arid lands than are most birds and mammals. Being ectothermic (obtaining their body heat solely from the external environment), reptiles have a much lower cost of living than do birds and mammals which produce their own body heat using a great deal of food in the metabolic process. In desert lands, where primary productivity (plant growth) is low, reptiles are thus able to maintain larger populations on the limited food supplies than is possible for birds and mammals.

The most limiting factor for life on the desert is drinking water. Reptiles are pre-adapted to such arid conditions. They do not need water for cooling because they do not perspire or pant. They just crawl into a cool hole in the heat of the day. Their scales also greatly retard water loss through the skin. In addition, reptiles do not need water for excretion; they produce no urine. Their nitrogenous wastes are excreted as a solid: uric acid. Reptiles can get all the water they need from the food they eat. Although desert tortoises and probably most other reptiles will drink water when it appears after summer rains, many lizards and snakes probably go their whole lives without a drink of water.

The reptiles of Joshua Tree National Park include one tortoise, 18 lizards, and 25 varieties of snakes.

Tortoise
Mojave Desert Tortoise
Gopherus agassizii agassizii
Creosote bush lowlands in the Mojave Desert; Rocky hillsides and bajadas in the Colorado Desert (threatened)

Lizards
Desert Banded Gecko
Coleonyx variegatus variegatus
Most common in sandy flats; occasional in canyons and rocky areas (common)

Northern Desert Iguana
Dipsosaurus dorsalis dorsalis
Most common on sandy flats, dunes, and washes but also along rocky washes and on alluvial fans (common)

Mojave Collared Lizard
Crotaphytus bicinctores
Rocky slopes, rock outcrops of gullies, and boulder-strewn alluvial fans (common)

Long-nosed Leopard Lizard
Gambelia wislizenii wislizenii
Open sandy or gravelly flats and plains; less commonly in rocky areas (common)

Western Chuckwalla
Sauromalus ater obesus
Rocky outcrops, rocky canyons, rocky slopes, and alluvial fans (special concern)

Mojave Zebra-tailed Lizard
Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus
Open areas of sandy and gravelly desert flats, sandy washes, and alluvial fans (common)

San Diego Horned Lizard
Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillii
Northwest section where loose, fine soil with high sand content is present (threatened)

Southern Desert Horned Lizard
Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum
Sandy flats and canyon bottoms (common)

Yellow-backed Spiny Lizard
Sceloporus magister uniformis
Most abundant in the Joshua tree woodland; Occasionally on rock outcrops (common)

Great Basin Fence Lizard
Sceloporus biseriatus longipes
Rocky outcrops above 3,000 feet (common)

Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard
Uma scoparia
Wind-blown sand of dry lake beds, washes, and sand dunes (special concern)

Western Brush Lizard
Urosaurus graciosus graciosus
Bushes and small trees; also in clumps of galleta grass, Pleuraphis rigida (common)

Desert Side-blotched Lizard
Uta stansburiana stejnegeri
Open, sunny ground Usually some rocks and loose soil are present (common)

Desert Night Lizard
Xantusia vigilis vigilis
Most common in Joshua tree woodland, especially within fallen branches of Joshua trees and yuccas (common)

Great Basin Whiptail
Aspidoscelis tigris tigris
Most common in areas where vegetation is densest (common)

Western Red-tailed Skink
Eumeces gilberti rubricaudatus
Prefers moderately damp areas; northwest section (common)

San Diego Alligator Lizard
Elgaria multicarinata webbii
Prefers moderately damp areas; northwest section (common)

Silvery Legless Lizard
Anniella pulchra pulchra
Sandy or loose loamy soils with some moisture; northwest section (special concern)

Snakes
Southwestern Blind Snake
Leptotyphlops humilis humilis
Moist areas in canyons, rocky slopes and boulder piles, and among the roots of shrubs; northern section (common)

Desert Blind Snake
Leptotyphlops humilis cahuilae
Sandy hills and rocky slopes where soil moisture is present; southern section (common)

Desert Rosy Boa
Lichanura trivirgata gracia
Rocky hills and canyons (special concern)

Mojave Glossy Snake
Arizona occidentalis candida
Prefers sandy areas, but also occurs on hard pan or in rocky areas; northern section (common)

Desert Glossy Snake
Arizona occidentalis eburnata
Sandy flats; southern section (common)

Mojave Shovel-nosed Snake
Chionactis occipitalis occipitalis
Sandy desert, creosote bush and sand dune areas Occasionally in rocky canyons and on rocky slopes (common)

Desert Night Snake
Hypsiglena torquata deserticola
Most common in rocky areas (common)

California Kingsnake
Lampropeltis getula californiae
Found in all communities; most common in canyons with water (common)

Red Coachwhip
Masticophis flagellum piceus
Prefers open areas with high visibility (common)

California Striped Racer
Masticophis lateralis lateralis
Most common in pinyon-juniper woodland; northwest section (common)

Western Leaf-nosed Snake
Phyllorhynchus decurtatus perkinsi
Areas of mixed sandy and rocky soil (common)

Sonoran Gopher Snake
Pituophis catenifer affinis
Creosote bush scrub; southern section (common)

Great Basin Gopher Snake
Pituophis catenifer deserticola
Creosote bush scrub, pinyon-juniper and Joshua tree woodlands, desert riparian community; northern section (common)

Western Long-nosed Snake
Rhinocheilus lecontei lecontei
Creosote bush scrub and pinyon-juniper woodlands (common)

Desert Patch-nosed Snake
Salvadora hexalepis hexalepis
Creosote bush scrub, desert washes; southern section (rare)

Mojave Patch-nosed Snake
Salvadora hexalepis mojavensis
Most common on sandy valley floors; northern section (common)

Smith’s Black-headed Snake
Tantilla hobartsmithi
Desert riparian, pinyon-juniper and Joshua tree woodland; creosote bush and alkali scrubs; perennial grassland (common)

California Lyre Snake
Trimorphodon biscutatus vandenburghi
Rocky foothills, canyons, and mesas (common)

Western Diamondback Snake
Crotalus atrox
Areas with fairly thick vegetation; southern section (common)

Mojave Desert Sidewinder
Crotalus cerastes cerastes
Sandy deserts, occasionally in rocky areas (common)

Colorado Desert Sidewinder
Crotalus cerastes laterorepens
Sandy, south-facing canyons; southwestern section (common)

Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake
Crotalus mitchelli pyrrhus
Rocky slopes, canyons, rock outcrops (common)

Red Diamond Rattlesnake
Crotalus ruber ruber
Brush shrouded granite boulders and cactus patches; western section (common)

Mojave Rattlesnake
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus
Desert flats; northwestern edge only (common)

Southern Pacific Rattlesnake
Crotalus helleri
Pinyon-juniper woodland communities; northwestern section (common)

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