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Wildlife > Reptiles > Snakes

Coachwhip
Masticophis flagellum

Family: Colubridae Order: Squamata Class: Reptilia

DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, AND SEASONALITY

Coachwhips are common to uncommon in arid regions below 2350 m (7700 ft) in California (Stebbins 1985). They are found in the deserts south of Mono Co. and the foothills of the coast ranges south of San Francisco Bay. There is an isolated population in the Sutter Buttes, Sutter Co. (Hayes and Cliff 1982). Coachwhips occur in open terrain and are most abundant in grass, desert, scrub, chaparral, and pasture habitats (Wilson 1970, Stebbins 1972).

SPECIFIC HABITAT REQUIREMENTS

Feeding: Diet consists of rodents, lizards and eggs, snakes (including rattlesnakes), birds and eggs, young turtles, insects, and carrion (Cowles 1946, Stebbins 1954, Wright and Wright 1957, Carpenter 1958, Cunningham 1959, Miller and Stebbins 1964). Coachwhips search actively for prey, with their heads elevated. They poke their heads in burrows, or climb trees, using both vision and olfaction to detect prey (Stebbins 1954, 1985, Miller and Stebbins 1964), which is consumed alive and whole (Ortenburger 1928, Stebbins 1954, 1985).

Cover: Coachwhips seek cover in rodent burrows, bushes, trees, and rock piles (Stebbins 1954, 1985, Miller and Stebbins 1964). They hibernate in soil or sand approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below the surface, sometimes at the bases of plants (Wright and Wright 1957).

Reproduction: Little is known about nest sites. One was recorded on the bank of a highway drainage ditch, approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) beneath the ground surface (Wright and Wright 1957).

Water: In desert regions, coachwhips may be attracted to water to drink or ambush prey (Miller and Stebbins 1964).

Pattern: Open habitats are preferred.

SPECIES LIFE HISTORY

Activity Patterns: Diurnal. Coachwhips are usually active mid-morning and late afternoon (Miller and Stebbins 1964) from March through October (Wright and Wright 1957).

Seasonal Movements/Migration: No data.

Home Range: No data.

Territory: No data.

Reproduction: Mating occurs in April and May, eggs are laid June and July, and the first young appear in late August or early September (Stebbins 1954, Wright and Wright 1957, Fitch 1970). Clutch size ranges from 4 to 16 eggs with a mean of 8 to 10 (Stebbins 1954, Wright and Wright 1957, Carpenter 1958, Cunningham 1959, Fitch 1970). The incubation period in the lab is 76-79 days (Stebbins 1954).

Niche: Coachwhips are mainly terrestrial, but occasionally climb trees and bushes to bask, seek prey and cover. These aggressive snakes will bite if captured. They are able to move rapidly, up to 12.8km (8 mi) per hour (Stebbins 1954, 1985, Miller and Stebbins 1964). Hawks are probable predators, and roadrunners may feed on young coachwhips.


Also see:

Joshua Tree National Park Wildlife
Red Coachwhip Masticophis flagellum piceus Prefers open areas with high visibility (common) California Striped Racer Masticophis lateralis lateralis ...

Death Valley Snakes
Western Coachwhip (Red Racer) Masticophis flagellum piceus Common throughout park; often seen crossing roads; very fast and heat-tolerant; an agressive snake ...

Ash Meadows
Coachwhip and gopher snakes are two of the more common snakes seen at Ash Meadows. During the heat of mid-summer, many reptiles and amphibians become ...

REFERENCES

Brattstrom, B. H., and J. W. Warren. 1953. A new subspecies of racer, Masticophis flagellum, from the San Joaquin Valley of California. Herpetologica 9:177-179. Carpenter, C. C. 1958. Reproduction, young, eggs, and food of Oklahoma snakes. Herpetologica 14:113-115.

Cowles, R. B. 1946. Carrion eating by a snake. Herpetologica 3:121-122.

Cunningham, J. D. 1959. Reproduction and food of some California snakes. Herpetologica 15:17-19.

Fitch, H. S. 1970. Reproductive cycles in lizards and snakes. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. 52:1-247.

Hayes, M. and F. Cliff. 1982. A checklist of the herpetofauna of Butte County, The Butte Sink and Sutter Buttes, California. Herp. Review 13:85-87.

Miller, A. H., and R. C. Stebbins. 1964. The lives of desert animals in Joshua Tree National Monument. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 452pp.

Ortenburger, A. I. 1928. The whipsnakes and racers: Genera Masticophis and Coluber. Mem. Univ. Mich. Mus. 1:1-247.

Stebbins, R. C. 1954. Amphibians and reptiles of western North America. McGraw-Hill, New York. 536pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1972. California amphibians and reptiles. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 152pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1985. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. 2nd ed., revised. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. 336pp.

Wilson, L. D. 1970. The coachwhip snake, Masticophis flagellum (Shaw): Taxonomy and distribution. Tulane Std. Zool. Bot. 16:31-99.

Wilson, L. D. 1973. Masticophis flagellum. Cat. Am. Amphibians and Reptiles 145.1-145.4.

Wright, A. H., and A. A. Wright. 1957. Handbook of frogs and toads of the United States and Canada. Cornell Univ. Press, New York. 640pp.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Masticophis flagellum flagellum
Scientific name: Masticophis flagellum flagellum. Description: The Eastern Coachwhip is one of the largest snakes in North America. ...

Masticophis flagellum piceus - Red Coachwhip
Five or six subspecies of Masticophis flagellum are recognized. Only two occur in California, including the San Joaquin Coachwhip - M. f. ruddocki (or three ...

Masticophis flagellum
Masticophis flagellum flagellum: Amount of coloration varies, but they are generally darker at the head to midbody, then become lighter toward the tail. ...

ADW: Masticophis flagellum: Information
One subspecies, the San Joaquin whipsnake (Masticophis flagellum ruddocki) has been listed by the California Department of Fish and Game as a "Species of ...

Masticophis flagellum testaceus (Western coachwhip)
Masticophis flagellum testaceus. Where I've found this snake:. NM: Eddy county (1989-2002, 2004-2005), Chaves county (2001-2002), Otero county (2002) ...

Masticophis flagellum, Coachwhip or Red Racer
Masticophis flagellum piceus - Red Coachwhip or Red Racer Photo by Chris Brown. Scientific name: Masticophis flagellum piceus Masticophis flagellum piceus ...

Masticophis flagellum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Masticophis flagellum is a species of non-venomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as coachwhips or whip snakes. There are 7 recognized subspecies. ...

Masticophis flagellum
Squamata suborder Serpentes Masticophis flagellum -- Coachwhip ... Subspecies: Eastern coachwhip, M. f. flagellum. Description: Long (up to 260 cm TL), ...

Masticophis flagellum
...Definition of Masticophis flagellum in the Online Dictionary. Meaning of Masticophis flagellum. What does Masticophis flagellum mean?

Coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum)
Subspecies in Colorado:: Masticophis flagellum testaceus Masticophis flagellum piceus may occur in extreme southwestern Colorado. ...

wildherps.com - Coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum)
Masticophis flagellum flagellum. Eastern Coachwhip. Sighting:. April 15, 2004 ... Eastern Coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum flagellum) ...

Masticophis flagellum
Coachwhip Masticophis flagellum, Coachwhip. Threatened. Illinois Natural History Survey Range Map. Coachwhip, Coachwhip ...

The Red Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum piceus
Masticophis flagellum fulginosus, Baja California Coachwhip. Masticophis flagellum lineatulus ... Masticophis flagellum ruddocki, San Joaquin Coachwhip ...

The Lined Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum lineatulus
Masticophis flagellum fulginosus, Baja California Coachwhip ... Masticophis flagellum ruddocki, San Joaquin Coachwhip ...

Masticophis flagellum ruddocki - San Joaquin Coachwhip
Five or six subspecies of Masticophis flagellum are recognized. Only two occur in California, including the Red Coachwhip - M. f. piceus (or three by those ...

Masticophis flagellum
COACHWHIP Masticophis flagellum (Shaw, 1802). STATUS: Common. LOCALITIES OBSERVED: Collin Co.: 3 mi E of Wylie, 4 mi E of Wylie near Tx 78, ...

CNAH
Masticophis flagellum fuliginosus (Cope, 1895). Taxonomic Comments:. Grismer (2002, Amphibians and Reptiles of Baja California. ...



Coachwhip
Photo by Chris Brown


Coachwhip
Photo by Chris Brown


Additional information:

Scientific name: Masticophis flagellum piceus

Common name: Red Coachwhip or Red Racer

Size: 24.4-54.3 in (62-138 cm)

Distinguishing characters: A species with highly variable dorsal coloration; tan, grey, red, or pink with bold black or brown crossbars or blotches on neck which may blend together; venter pink; slender body and tail; large eyes with round pupils; often described as a red snake with a black head.

Juveniles: Black, brown or tan transverse bands on lighter background; black neck markings absent in hatchlings and faint in juveniles less than 24 in (61 cm) in length.

Dimorphism: None

Similar species: Masticophis lateralis: Has distinct yellow lateral stripes.

Additional notes: A fast moving diurnal snake that is difficult to capture. Bites, excretes musk and twists body when handled. Large individuals should be handled with caution.

The fastest snake in the Mojave, it moves about during the day in search of grasshoppers, lizards and small rodents. When threatened, it imitates a rattlesnake by curling into a striking position and vibrating its tail.

recreation - ecology: wildlife - plants - geography: places - MAPS - map/sat - roads & trails: route 66 - old west - communities - weather
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