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White-tailed Antelope SquirrelAmmospermophilus leucurus
These are the only small desert mammals active during the day in summer and late spring months. They cache food for for emergencies, although not as much as tree squirrels or chipmunks. Females bear from 3 to 9 young within about 28 days after mating. The males play no role in the rearing of the young.
DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, AND SEASONALITY
The white-tailed antelope squirrel is common to abundant in the deserts of California from
Mono Co. south to the Mexican border, and along the northeastern border of California in
Lassen and Modoc cos. Optimal habitats are
alkali desert scrub,
Fairly common in
desert succulent shrub,
habitats. Also occurs in mixed chaparral and annual
grassland (Miller and Stebbins 1964, Ingles 1965, Bradley and Mauer 1973, Honeycutt et al.
Allred, D. M., and D. E. Beck. 1963a. Ecological distribution of some rodents at the Nevada atomic test site. Ecology. 44:211-214.
Allred, D. M., and D. E. Beck. 1963b. Range of movement and dispersal of some rodents at the Nevada atomic test site. J. Mammal. 44:190-200.
Bartholomew, G. A., and J. W. Hudson. 1961. Desert ground squirrels. Sci. Am. 205:107-116.
Bradley, W. G. 1967. Home range, activity patterns, and ecology of the antelope ground squirrel in southern Nevada. Southwest. Nat. 12:231-252.
Bradley, W. G. 1968a. Homing in the antelope and round-tailed ground squirrels. J. Ariz. Acad. Sci. 5:22-26.
Bradley, W. G. 1968b. Food habits of the antelope ground squirrel in southern Nevada. J. Mammal. 49:14-21.
Bradley, W. G., and R. A. Mauer. 1973. Rodents of a creosote-bush community in southern Nevada. Southwest. Nat. 17:333-344.
Chappell, M. A., and G. A. Bartholomew. 1981. Activity and thermoregulation of the antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus, in winter and summer. Physiol. Zool. 54:215-223.
Fisler, G. F. 1976. Agonistic signals and hierarchy changes of antelope squirrels. J. Mammal. 57:94-102.
Fisler, G. F. 1977. Interspecific hierarchy at an artificial food source. Anim. Behav. 25:240-244.
Grinnell, J., and J. Dixon. 1919. Natural history of the ground squirrels of California. Calif. State Comm. Horticulture Bull. 7:597-708.
Honeycutt, R. L., M. P. Moulton, J. R. Roppe, and L. Fifield. 1981. The influence of topography and vegetation on the distribution of small mammals in southwestern Utah. Southwest. Nat. 26:295-300.
Hudson, J. W. 1962. The role of water in the biology of the antelope ground squirrel, Citellus leucurus. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 64:1-61.
Ingles, L. G. 1965. Mammals of the Pacific states. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA. 506pp.
Karasov, W. H. 1979. Winter feeding by antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus): a case of time limitations. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 60:90.
Karasov. W. H. 1981. Daily energy expenditure and the cost of activity in a free-living mammal. Oecologia (Berlin) 51:253-259.
Karasov, W. H. 1982. Energy assimilation, nitrogen requirement and diet in free-living antelope ground squirrels, Ammospermophilus leucurus. Physiol. Zool. 55:378-392. Karasov, W. H. 1983. Wintertime energy conservation by huddling in antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus). J. Mammal. 64:341-345.
Kenagy, G. J. 1981. Endogenous annual rhythm of reproductive function in the nonhibernating desert ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus. J. Comp. Physiol. A132:251-258.
Kenagy, G. J., and G. A. Bartholomew. 1979. Effects of day length and endogenous control of the annual reproductive cycle of the antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus. J. Comp. Physiol. A130:131-136.
Kram, K. R. 1972. Body temperature regulation and torpor in the antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus. J. Mammal. 53:609-611.
Miller, A. H., and R. C. Stebbins. 1964. The lives of desert animals in Joshua Tree National Monument. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 452pp.
California Department of Fish and Game. California Interagency Wildlife Task Group. 2005. California Wildlife Habitat Relationships version 8.1 personal computer program. Sacramento, California.